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Speech Disorder
Speech is the communication / expression of thoughts and feelings in spoken words.
A disorder affecting an individuals ability to produce normal speech is referred to as a speech disorder. A speech disorder may affect articulation (Phonetic / Phonological) Fluency ( Stuttering / Cluttering ) and or voice (tone, pitch, volume / speed)
According to American speech language hearing Association (ASHA), a language disorder is an impairment in comprehension of the use of spoken, written or other symbol system.

Reasons for speech and language disorder:
Known cause
  • Brain injury
  • Alcohol abuse / drug abuse
  • Genetic disorder
  • Neurological speech disorder ( eg: cerebral palsy)
  • Hearing Loss
  • Mental retardation
  • Autism
  • Cleft lip and palate
  • Vocal abuse / misuse, etc.

Types of speech & language disorder spasmodic dysphonia
Disorder where the muscles of the larynx / the voice box move involuntarily. In some cases, individuals will produce weak whispery voice and in other cases there will be stammering (cutting of some words)

Aphasia
Caused due to any injury to the brain. Apraxic patients have difficulty in expressing consistently and correctly.
This can be of two types:

  • Developmental (Present from birth)
  • Acquired (caused due to physical injury to the brain)

Articulation Disorder
Unable to produce a particular sound. Hence it is difficult to understand the speech of people with articulation problems

Speech Sound Disorder
Disorder seen in children due to developmental disorders like autism, down syndrome etc

Cluttering
People with cluttering speeks very fastly and it is very difficult to understand their speech.
Cluttering thus effects the fluency of speech

Dysarthria
Dysarthria is caused due to stroke, brain tumor etc.
As a result of this, muscles of tongue / mouth becomes weak / paralysed
Thus speech becomes slow and inaccurate.

Lisps: Difficulty to produce specific speech sound.
Dysprosody : Rare type of speech disorder wherein the rhythm, timing, modulation and intensity of speech is affected.

Phonemic Disorder
Physically unable to produce sounds like Ďc, tí with the use of tongue, teeth, lips, palate, facial muscles and nerves.
Usually a person with phonemic disorder substitute one sound for the other.

Learning Disability:
This is characterized by academic functioning that is below a personís chronological age, measured intelligence and appropriate education.

Mental Retardation:
Significantly sub average intellectual functioning (IQ 70/below) with onset before 18 years and deficits in adaptive behavior ( communication, self care, social skills, etc.)

Autism
Lack of communication skills and difficulty with social interaction.

Cerebral Palsy
Neurological disorder due to developmental defects in the brain during infancy / early childhood.

Cleft Lip and Palate

 

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